Pench Conservation History

Introduction
Pench Tiger Reserve is named after the Pench River, which flows from north to south through the Reserve. Pench Tiger Reserve is situated in the southern reaches of the Satpura hill range in the Seoni and Chhindwara districts in the Indian State of Madhya Pradesh. The terrain is undulating, with most of the area covered by small hills, steeply sloping on the sides. The reserve is situated in an area that holds a significant place in the natural history of the Central India. The description of its natural beauty, richness if flora and fauna has appeared in numerous wildlife books dating back to 17th century. Books written in the 19th and early 20th century by famous naturalists like Captain J. Forsyth and Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book explicitly present the detailed panorama of nature's abundance in this tract. There is a rich conservation history of the Pench National Park. It was included under the 'Tiger Conservation Project' in 1992 when the Pench Tiger Reserve was created, which became the 19th Tiger Reserve of the world. The wildlife conservation in Pench National Park is carried out through vast areas of Reserve Forests, protected forest areas and buffer zones. The Total Reserve area at the Pench national park is 273 sq km.

Pench Conservation History
In 1977, declaration of 449.39 sq. km. as Pench Sanctuary immediately checked the rampant exploitation of this area for timber, making it a suitable habitat for the Big Cats. Encouraged by this, the government declared Pench as a National Park in 1993 as the 19th Tiger Reserve of India. In 1951, the Bombay Wild Animals and Wild Birds Act was established which was extended to the Vidarbha region since 1961. It prohibited hunting every year from April to the End of October. It also asked for registration of arm license holders with the Wildlife Preservation Officer. The Government of Maharashtra soon declared the area as the Pench National Park while the Indian Government declared it the Pench Tiger Reserve in 1992. This was aimed to maintain a healthy tiger population. Comparatively, Pench is a younger forest, yet it carries a promise to be one of the best to ensure that the Indian National Animal will survive for generations to come. This was carved out of the Pench Sanctuary created in 1977 with an area of 449.39 km2 the area of the Park is 292.85 sq. km., which is divided almost equally in two districts- 145.36 sq.km. In Seoni and 147.28 km2 in Chhindwara includes 138.24 km2 Reserve forests, 6.26 km2 Protected Forest and 2.78- km2 revenue lands. The buffer zone, 465 km2 comprises of 333.05sq.km Of R.F., 102.36 sq.km Of P.F and 29.59 sq. km. of revenue land. The total area of the reserve is 757.86 km2.

Tiger Conservation History
It is the best news that the number of tigers in the world has risen from 3,200 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2015. That is an increase of 690 tigers in the world. This is great news since it is after many decades that this has happened. Out of this 690 tigers, India accounts for 520 tigers. The rest 190 tigers are from countries like Russia, Nepal, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China and others. It is clear that India holds a dominant place in the tiger conservation. In India, the tiger numbers have risen from 1,706 in 2010 to 2,226 in 2014. It gives us hope that an endangered species can be saved. But it is sad to hear that now a day's one tiger found dead within approximately 10 days. Recently, a tigress named Bhaginnala was found dead and the reason was poisoning. Bhaginnala was a tourist attraction and her photograph was hung on the main gate of the Reserve. The reason for tiger deaths in Pench is poaching and excessive construction going on in the vicinity. So if we want to save our National Animal the need of the hour are good corridors connecting forests, making it safe for tigers to venture out. Tigers can be saved only when forest staff works hand in hand with the local people for forest and wildlife conservation and stop poaching in forest area.

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